Social vulnerability, effects and adaptation strategies for coping with natural disasters

Bangladesh is among the countries most at risk of natural disasters resulting from climate changes. Particularly, those living on the riversine islands (char) have to contend with ongoing climate events that increase their vulnerability. This study is designed to examine social vulnerability, its impacts and strategies for adaptation to climate changes in the riverine islands regions of Bangladesh.

Methods

A mixed-method method that combined qualitative and quantitative methods was applied to data gathered from 180 families living on the islands that lie in the river of Gaibandha, Bangladesh. The vulnerability of the riverine island communities was evaluated in relation to their adaptability capacity as well as their sensitivity and exposure to stressors of the climate.

Conclusion

The results highlight how important it is to assess the vulnerability of local regions to climate change. The findings also highlight the need for localized strategies and initiatives to decrease the risk of vulnerability and increase adaptability for communities that are inhabited by the char household.

Introduction

In the 21st century the climate change issue is now a major global issue, with a host of issues and difficulties [11. The negative effects of climate change represent a serious risk to the global community, especially to the emerging nations which are extremely vulnerable to the frequency and frequency of natural disasters and extreme weather incidents [2,3,44. Climate change can manifest in a variety of ways, such as changes in the patterns of precipitation, temperature as well as rising sea levels and warnings of severe weather events [5, 67. Additionally, its wide-ranging effects significantly impact the world’s social, economic and political activity which can cause disruptions to the way of life of people [7 8, 7]. A vast amount of research supports the idea that the poorer countries, like Bangladesh are the most vulnerable to the effects from climate changes [2 9].

Bangladesh is a country that has a distinct geographical location, precarious socioeconomic circumstances, a growing population as well as widespread poverty, and a lack of technological infrastructure, is an area that is highly vulnerable to climate change. The projections of statistical models predict an increase in sea levels of nearly 25 cm and 1 m in 2050, and then 2100, which will lead to displacement of between the equivalent of 33 and 43 million people over the next two decades [10 1111. In addition, Bangladesh is witnessing a gradual increase in average temperatures forecasts for an increase of 1.0 degree Celsius or 1.4 degC between 2030 and 2050. mostly due to the impact on climate change2. Bangladesh ranks fifth on the list of countries most vulnerable to extreme weather conditions worldwide [1212. This means that Bangladesh has a wide range of extreme climatic events like riverbank erosion, floods and cyclones, waterlogging landslides, salinity intrusion droughts, and storm surges every year [13 14[13, 14]. These events bring significant challenges to the life of the people living there [15].

This study examines on the vulnerability of the island that is surrounded by rivers in Bangladesh called Char in the wake of natural disasters brought on by climate changes. Char land, created over the course of two years by erosion and sedimentation and is mostly separated from the mainland and has been historically marginalized. The area is extremely vulnerable to natural disasters, such as riverbank erosion, floods and storms as well as droughts [1717. About 4-5% of Bangladesh’s population, the majority of them involved in agriculture, reside on these islands of the river [1818. Residents of Char, particularly those who live on islands, are very vulnerable to climate change as their farms, homes and crops being at risk and the potential for a rise in hunger and poverty [1919. The lack of access to basic resources increases their chances of becoming poor. The frequent displacement caused by climate change-related disasters like droughts and floods is typical in Char people [2021.

Numerous research studies were conducted about the impacts of climate change on vulnerability, adaptation, and impacts in Bangladesh and the region, with the majority of studies focusing on environmental and biophysical aspects. However, little attention has been paid to social and national scales

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